bursting adj : (of munitions) going off; "bursting bombs"; "an exploding nuclear device"; "a spectacular display of detonating anti-tank mines" [syn: detonating, exploding]
- present participle of burst.
Bursting is a rapid signaling mode in neurons whereby clusters of two or more action potentials (spikes) are emitted as a single signaling event. A burst of two spikes is called a doublet, three spikes - triplet, four - quadruplet, etc. Burst mode is thought to be useful for signaling important events and routing information in the brain. In general, there are two types of bursting:
- Input-driven bursting, where strong excitatory inputs produce a rapid activation and burst of action potentials
- Intrinsic bursting, where voltage-gated ion channels intrinsic to the neuron convert brief suprathreshold inputs into long-lasting bursts of action potential output.
Some types of neurons are able to respond to current input by emitting an all- or non-burst response. This burst usually consists of a short phase of repeated action potentials, at a frequency of up to 350 Hz. This is followed by a prolonged refractory period. In contrast, neurons that fire tonically respond with action potentials at a rate proportional to the input current.
Most mathematical models of bursting can be written in the singularly perturbed form \begin \dot = \ f(x, y) & \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \mbox \\ \dot = \mu g(x, y) & \mbox \end
where x is the fast variable, a vector that simulates fast spiking of the neuron, and y is the slow variable, a vector that modulates spiking activity. A topological classification of bursters relies on the bifurcations of the fast subsystem (variable x) when the slow subsystem (variable y) is treated as a parameter.
The subiculum is an example of a brain region where the rapid transition between bursting and single-spiking is important for routing information out of the hippocampus.
- (2005) Action potential burst mode transition mechanism, PLoS Biology, 3(6):e175
- (2005) Switching Signals in the Brain, PLoS Biology, 3(6):e210
- Cooper, Donald C. (2002) Significance of action potential bursting, Neurochemistry International Volume 41, Issue 5
- Izhikevich, Eugene M. (2006) Bursting. Scholarpedia, p.1401
- Izhikevich, Eugene M. (2007) Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience: The Geometry of Excitability and Bursting. The MIT Press.
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